JavaScript Knowledge

JavaScript


Promise

Syntax

new Promise( /* executor */ function(resolve, reject) { ... } );

Description

A Promise is a proxy for a value not necessarily known when the promise is created. It allows you to associate handlers with an asynchronous action’s eventual success value or failure reason. This lets asynchronous methods return values like synchronous methods: instead of immediately returning the final value, the asynchronous method returns a promise to supply the value at some point in the future.

A Promise is in one of these states:

pending: initial state, neither fulfilled nor rejected. fulfilled: meaning that the operation completed successfully. rejected: meaning that the operation failed. A pending promise can either be fulfilled with a value, or rejected with a reason (error). When either of these options happens, the associated handlers queued up by a promise’s then method are called. (If the promise has already been fulfilled or rejected when a corresponding handler is attached, the handler will be called, so there is no race condition between an asynchronous operation completing and its handlers being attached.)

As the Promise.prototype.then() and Promise.prototype.catch() methods return promises, they can be chained.

Methods

Promise.all(iterable)

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var p1 = Promise.resolve(3);
var p2 = 1337;
var p3 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  setTimeout(resolve, 100, 'foo');
}); 

Promise.all([p1, p2, p3]).then(values => { 
  console.log(values); // [3, 1337, "foo"] 
});
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// this will be counted as if the iterable passed is empty, so it gets fulfilled
var p = Promise.all([1,2,3]);
// this will be counted as if the iterable passed contains only the resolved promise with value "444", so it gets fulfilled
var p2 = Promise.all([1,2,3, Promise.resolve(444)]);
// this will be counted as if the iterable passed contains only the rejected promise with value "555", so it gets rejected
var p3 = Promise.all([1,2,3, Promise.reject(555)]);

// using setTimeout we can execute code after the stack is empty
setTimeout(function(){
    console.log(p);
    console.log(p2);
    console.log(p3);
});

// logs
// Promise { <state>: "fulfilled", <value>: Array[3] }
// Promise { <state>: "fulfilled", <value>: Array[4] }
// Promise { <state>: "rejected", <reason>: 555 }
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// we are passing as argument an array of promises that are already resolved,
// to trigger Promise.all as soon as possible
var resolvedPromisesArray = [Promise.resolve(33), Promise.resolve(44)];

var p = Promise.all(resolvedPromisesArray);
// immediately logging the value of p
console.log(p);

// using setTimeout we can execute code after the stack is empty
setTimeout(function(){
    console.log('the stack is now empty');
    console.log(p);
});

// logs, in order:
// Promise { <state>: "pending" } 
// the stack is now empty
// Promise { <state>: "fulfilled", <value>: Array[2] }
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var mixedPromisesArray = [Promise.resolve(33), Promise.reject(44)];
var p = Promise.all(mixedPromisesArray);
console.log(p);
setTimeout(function(){
    console.log('the stack is now empty');
    console.log(p);
});

// logs
// Promise { <state>: "pending" } 
// the stack is now empty
// Promise { <state>: "rejected", <reason>: 44 }
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var p = Promise.all([]); // will be immediately resolved
var p2 = Promise.all([1337, "hi"]); // non-promise values will be ignored, but the evaluation will be done asynchronously
console.log(p);
console.log(p2)
setTimeout(function(){
    console.log('the stack is now empty');
    console.log(p2);
});

// logs
// Promise { <state>: "fulfilled", <value>: Array[0] }
// Promise { <state>: "pending" }
// the stack is now empty
// Promise { <state>: "fulfilled", <value>: Array[2] }
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var p1 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => { 
  setTimeout(resolve, 1000, 'one'); 
}); 
var p2 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => { 
  setTimeout(resolve, 2000, 'two'); 
});
var p3 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  setTimeout(resolve, 3000, 'three');
});
var p4 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  setTimeout(resolve, 4000, 'four');
});
var p5 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {
  reject('reject');
});

Promise.all([p1, p2, p3, p4, p5]).then(values => { 
  console.log(values);
}, reason => {
  console.log(reason)
});

//From console:
//"reject"

//You can also use .catch
Promise.all([p1, p2, p3, p4, p5]).then(values => { 
  console.log(values);
}).catch(reason => { 
  console.log(reason)
});

//From console: 
//"reject"